Hazmat Dictionary (A to E)
Please refer to this helpful list of terms commonly used in the transport of hazardous materials.
Administrator means the Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration.
Aerosol means any non-refillable receptacle containing a gas compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure, the sole purpose of which is to expel a nonpoisonous (other than a Division 6.1 Packing Group III material) liquid, paste, or powder and fitted with a self-closing release device allowing the contents to be ejected by the gas.
Agricultural product means a hazardous material, other than a hazardous waste, whose end use directly supports the production of an agricultural commodity including, but not limited to a fertilizer, pesticide, soil amendment or fuel. An agricultural product is limited to a material in Class 3, 8 or 9, Division 2.1, 2.2, 5.1, or 6.1, or an ORM-D material.
Approval means a written authorization, including a competent authority approval, from the Associate Administrator or other designated Department official, to perform a function for which prior authorization by the Associate Administrator is required under subchapter C of this chapter (49 CFR parts 171 through 180.)
Approved means approval issued or recognized by the Department unless otherwise specifically indicated in this subchapter.
Asphyxiant gas means a gas which dilutes or replaces oxygen normally in the atmosphere.
Associate Administrator means the Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety, Research and Special Programs Administration.
Atmospheric gases means air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, krypton, neon and xenon.
Authorized Inspection Agency means: (1) A jurisdiction which has adopted and administers one or more sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code as a legal requirement and has a representative serving as a member of the ASME Conference Committee; or (2) an insurance company which has been licensed or registered by the appropriate authority of a State of the United States or a Province of Canada to underwrite boiler and pressure vessel insurance in such State or Province.
Authorized Inspector means an Inspector who is currently commissioned by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors and employed as an Inspector by an Authorized Inspection Agency.
Bag means a flexible packaging made of paper, plastic film, textiles, woven material or other similar materials.
Bar means 1 BAR = 100 kPa (14.5 psi).
Barge means a non-selfpropelled vessel.
Biological product. See § 173.134 of this subchapter.
Bottle means an inner packaging having a neck of relatively smaller cross section than the body and an opening capable of holding a closure for retention of the contents.
Bottom shell means that portion of a tank car tank surface, excluding the head ends of the tank car tank, that lies within two feet, measured circumferentially, of the bottom longitudinal center line of the tank car tank.
Box means a packaging with complete rectangular or polygonal faces, made of metal, wood, plywood, reconstituted wood, fiberboard, plastic, or other suitable material. Holes appropriate to the size and use of the packaging, for purposes such as ease of handling or opening, or to meet classification requirements, are permitted as long as they do not compromise the integrity of the packaging during transportation, and are not otherwise prohibited in this subchapter.
Break-bulk means packages of hazardous materials that are handled individually, palletized, or unitized for purposes of transportation as opposed to bulk and containerized freight.
Btu means British thermal unit.
Bulk packaging means a packaging, other than a vessel or a barge, including a transport vehicle or freight container, in which hazardous materials are loaded with no intermediate form of containment and which has: (1) A maximum capacity greater than 450 L (119 gallons) as a receptacle for a liquid; (2) A maximum net mass greater than 400 kg (882 pounds) and a maximum capacity greater than 450 L (119 gallons) as a receptacle for a solid; or (3) A water capacity greater than 454 kg (1000 pounds) as a receptacle for a gas as defined in §173.115 of this subchapter.
Bureau of Explosives means the Bureau of Explosives (B of E) of the Association of American Railroads.
C means Celsius or Centigrade.
Captain of the Port (COTP) means the officer of the Coast Guard, under the command of a District Commander, so designated by the Commandant for the purpose of giving immediate direction to Coast Guard law enforcement activities within an assigned area. As used in this subchapter, the term Captain of the Port includes an authorized representative of the Captain of the Port.
Carfloat means a vessel that operates on a short run on an irregular basis and serves one or more points in a port area as an extension of a rail line or highway over water, and does not operate in ocean, coastwise, or ferry service.
Cargo aircraft only means an aircraft that is used to transport cargo and is not engaged in carrying passengers. For purposes of this subchapter, the terms cargo aircraft only, cargo-only aircraft and cargo aircraft have the same meaning.
Cargo tank means a bulk packaging that: (1) Is a tank intended primarily for the carriage of liquids or gases and includes appurtenances, reinforcements, fittings, and closures (for the definition of a tank, see 49 CFR 178.320, 178.337-1, or 178.338-1, as applicable); (2) Is permanently attached to or forms a part of a motor vehicle, or is not permanently attached to a motor vehicle but which, by reason of its size, construction or attachment to a motor vehicle is loaded or unloaded without being removed from the motor vehicle; and (3) Is not fabricated under a specification for cylinders, intermediate bulk containers, multi-unit tank car tanks, portable tanks, or tank cars.
Cargo tank motor vehicle means a motor vehicle with one or more cargo tanks permanently attached to or forming an integral part of the motor vehicle. Cargo vessel means: (1) Any vessel other than a passenger vessel; and (2) Any ferry being operated under authority of a change of character certificate issued by a Coast Guard Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection.
Carrier means a person who transports passengers or property in commerce by rail car, aircraft, motor vehicle, or vessel.
CC means closed-cup.
Character of vessel means the type of service in which the vessel is engaged at the time of carriage of a hazardous material.
Class means hazard class. See hazard class .
Class 1 . See §173.50 of this subchapter.
Class 2 . See §173.115 of this subchapter.
Class 3 . See §173.120 of this subchapter.
Class 4 . See §173.124 of this subchapter.
Class 5 . See §173.128 of this subchapter.
Class 6 . See §173.132 of this subchapter.
Class 7 . See §173.403 of this subchapter.
Class 8 . See §173.136 of this subchapter.
Class 9 . See §173.140 of this subchapter.
Closure means a device which closes an opening in a receptacle.
COFC means container-on-flat-car.
Combination packaging means a combination of packaging, for transport purposes, consisting of one or more inner packagings secured in a non-bulk outer packaging. It does not include a composite packaging.
Combustible liquid. See §173.120 of this subchapter.
Commerce means trade or transportation in the jurisdiction of the United States within a single state; between a place in a state and a place outside of the state; or that affects trade or transportation between a place in a state and place outside of the state.
Compatibility group letter means a designated alphabetical letter used to categorize different types of explosive substances and articles for purposes of stowage and segregation. See §173.52 of this subchapter.
Competent Authority means a national agency responsible under its national law for the control or regulation of a particular aspect of the transportation of hazardous materials (dangerous goods). The term Appropriate Authority , as used in the ICAO Technical Instructions (IBR, see § 171.7), has the same meaning as Competent Authority. For purposes of this subchapter, the Associate Administrator is the Competent Authority for the United States.
Composite packaging means a packaging consisting of an outer packaging and an inner receptacle, so constructed that the inner receptacle and the outer packaging form an integral packaging. Once assembled it remains thereafter an integrated single unit; it is filled, stored, shipped and emptied as such.
Compressed gas. See §173.115 of this subchapter.
Consignee means the person or place shown on a shipping document, package marking, or other media as the location to which a carrier is directed to transport a hazardous material.
Consumer commodity means a material that is packaged and distributed in a form intended or suitable for sale through retail sales agencies or instrumentalities for consumption by individuals for purposes of personal care or household use. This term also includes drugs and medicines.
Container Ship means a cargo vessel designed and constructed to transport, within specifically designed cells, portable tanks and freight containers which are lifted on and off with their contents intact.
Corrosive material. See §173.136 of this subchapter.
Crate means an outer packaging with incomplete surfaces.
Crewmember means a person assigned to perform duty in an aircraft during flight time.
Cryogenic liquid See §173.115(g) of this subchapter.
Cultures and stocks. See § 173.134 of this subchapter.
Cylinder means a pressure vessel designed for pressures higher than 40 psia and having a circular cross section. It does not include a portable tank, multi-unit tank car tank, cargo tank, or tank car.
Dangerous when wet material. See §173.124 of this subchapter.
Design Certifying Engineer means a person registered with the Department in accordance with subpart F of part 107 of this chapter who has the knowledge and ability to perform stress analysis of pressure vessels and otherwise determine whether a cargo tank design and construction meets the applicable DOT specification. A Design Certifying Engineer meets the knowledge and ability requirements of this section by meeting any one of the following requirements: Has an engineering degree and one year of work experience in cargo tank structural or mechanical design; Is currently registered as a professional engineer by appropriate authority of a state of the United States or a province of Canada; or Has at least three years' experience in performing the duties of a Design Certifying Engineer prior to September 1, 1991.
Designated facility means a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility that has been designated on the manifest by the generator.
Diagnostic specimen. See § 173.134 of this subchapter.
District Commander means the District Commander of the Coast Guard, or his authorized representative, who has jurisdiction in the particular geographical area.
Division means a subdivision of a hazard class.
DOD means the U.S. Department of Defense.
Domestic transportation means transportation between places within the United States other than through a foreign country.
DOT or Department means U.S. Department of Transportation.
Drum means a flat-ended or convex-ended cylindrical packaging made of metal, fiberboard, plastic, plywood, or other suitable materials. This definition also includes packagings of other shapes made of metal or plastic (e.g., round taper-necked packagings or pail-shaped packagings) but does not include cylinders, jerricans, wooden barrels or bulk packagings.
Elevated temperature material means a material which, when offered for transportation or transported in a bulk packaging: (1) Is in a liquid phase and at a temperature at or above 100°C (212°F); (2) Is in a liquid phase with a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) that is intentionally heated and offered for transportation or transported at or above its flash point; or (3) Is in a solid phase and at a temperature at or above 240°C (464°F).
Engine means a locomotive propelled by any form of energy and used by a railroad.
EPA means U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Etiologic agent. See §173.134 of this subchapter.
EX number means a number preceded by the prefix "EX", assigned by the Associate Administrator, to an item that has been evaluated under the provisions of § 173.56 of this subchapter.
Exemption means a document issued by the Associate Administrator under the authority of 49 U.S.C. 5117. The document permits a person to perform a function that is not otherwise permitted under subchapter A or C of this chapter, or other regulations issued under 49 U.S.C. 5101 through 5127 (e.g., Federal Motor Carrier Safety routing).
Explosive. See §173.50 of this subchapter.